Pennsylvanian Coal Measures

Found under bridge less than 60 yrs old in Middle Tennessee. Stalactite is composed of
Calcium Carbonate and reacts violently with Hydrochloric Acid. This is conclusive proof it is
made of same material as cave Stalactites.

This stalagmite was found on the ground under the stalactite in previous picture.
It is therefore less than 60 yrs old and a good reminder that what most cove
guides tell you about how slowly these formations grow is mostly incorrect.
Time doesn't make stalactites or stalagmites, process does.

This shiny black leaf is a polystrate fossil as 1. the partly excavated fern fossil
is lying flat along the strata and 2. The larger leaf is lying vertically on its side
across the strata indicating that the strata did not form slowly one on top of the other
but rapidly and more than one layer at a time. The polystrate leaf is from a
giant tassel fern and is one more evidence that the world was once much
more plant friendly that it has been since Noahs Flood.

Our Field Trip was to the top of the Cumberland Plateau shown here beside
the Sequatchie Valley

Many of the vertical trees stand above coal seams and protrude through hundreds
of layers which had to be formed in less time than the tree took to rot.

Tennessee geologist Robert Powell shows Polystrate giant Equisetum, or horse
 Tail  rush a plant which still grows in very miniature form in Tennessee.

Oil geologist Robert Stewart beside polystrate tree

But it was not just tree stumps that were buried quickly -  so were many ferns.
We excavated this one below - beautifully preserved - a sure sign  of rapid burial.

Close up the stem is easily seen to curve through many layers.

Always remember when you excavate a fossil that you are the first person to see
it since God saw it last. And ferns are easy to recognize in the rocks as they have
done exactly what God said - produce their own kind. SEE THESE FOSSIL



Outdoor Museum SIDE